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1723年(清雍正元年),雍正皇帝御批同仁堂供御药,由此开启了供御药的传奇经历。在整个清朝时期,享有连续188年供御药殊荣的民间药铺只有同仁堂一家。“传取同仁堂药品,表明清宫对同仁堂的信任和青睐,同时也证明同仁堂成药的品质优良,可以和御药房所制成药互为替代”。
In 1723,the 1st Qing Yongzheng reign, the emperor granted Tongrentang’s imperial supply of medications, when a legendary development process was initiated and lasted a successive duration of 188 years, then proudly as the only fold pharmacy supplier. The emperor’s grant to imperial supply of Tongrentang medications indicates the trust of Qing Imperial Palace and favor in Tongrentang. Meanwhile, this also proves the superb quality of Tongrentang prepared medicines, which were then replaceable with those by the imperial pharmacies.”

供御药的种类
Categories 

药材和咀片(饮片):这是同仁堂在所供的御药中传药次数最多、品种最广、数量最大的类别。以同治到宣统年间为例,仅49个年份中,有据可查的清宫传同仁堂药材和咀片次数共163次。其中:传药材124次,占76%;传咀片39次,占24%。
Medicinal Materials and prepared drug in pieces, were in most frequent demand, widest ranges, and largest quantities among all the Tongrentang supplies to the imperial court. Taking the supplies during the Tongzhi through Xuantong reigns as an example, there was a proven record of the Qing imperial court’s 163-time, which was only in a period of 49 years.

中成药(含仿单):目前故宫馆藏的同仁堂供中成药的仿单(药品说明书)有数千张,品种有上百种,主要有牛黄清心丸、熊油虎骨膏、加味逍遥丸、三黄宝蜡丸、内补养荣丸、佛手开骨散、养血安胎丸、七制香附丸、调经丸、百补济阴丸、千金止带丸、小儿香橘丸、女金丹等。“有一种仿单就意味着与之对应的一种药在宫中出现过”。目前仍保存在故宫博物院文物库房的同仁堂中成药有八宝太乙紫金锭、黎峒丸、十香返魂丹、神效活络丸(现名为“同仁大活络丸”)、再造丸、苏合丸等。”
Traditional Chinese Medicines: Several thousands of package inserts and hundreds of Traditional Chinese Medicines are collected at the Palace Museum, such as Niuhuang Qingxin Pill (cow-bezoar sedative bolus), Jiawei Xiaoyao Pill (flavored rambling pill), Yangxue Antai Pill (pill for nourishing the fetus), Tiaojing Pill (pill for menstrual regulation), Qianjin Zhidai Pill (pill for arresting leucorrhea), Xiaoer Xiangju Pill (aiding digestion pill for kids), Nv Jin Pill (pill for warming the uterus) and many others. The package inserts imply that some corresponding herbal medicine was ever consumed in the Imperial Palace. A number of Tongrentang Chinese Medicines are still housed at the Palace Museum cultural relic hall, including Babao Taiyi Zijinding, Lidong Pill, Shixiang Fanhun Pill, Shenxiao Huoluo Pill(presently renamed Tongren Da Huoluo Pill), Zaizao Pill and Suhe Pill,and so on.

《同仁堂传统配本》被两次传抄进入宫中,用于御药房配制中成药:光绪十一年(1885年)六月初四日,《同仁堂传统配本》一册抄存于清宫太医院(现存于故宫博物院),全书共103个配方,首列碧云散、结尾是益寿比天膏;光绪十七年(1898年)八月初八日,清宫又命同仁堂抄录《同仁堂传统配本》、《同仁堂药目》给御药房(现存于故宫博物院),其中有中成药配方425种,分为16门类,首列风痰门,牛黄清心丸列首位。
The manuscript of TRT Traditional Medicine Matching was re-copied into the Qing Imperial Palace for imperial pharmacy preparation of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the 4th day of the 6th lunar month, 1885 (the 11th Guangxu reign), then housed at the Palace Imperial Hospital and presently at the Palace Museum. The book includes a total of 103 formulas. In the 8th day of the 8th lunar month ,1891 (the 17th Guangxu reign), the Qing Imperial Palace ordered Tongrentang to copy the updated TRT Traditional Medicine Matching and TRT Materia Medica (now housed at the Palace Museum) for the imperial pharmacy preparations, which comprise 425 formulas of Tongrentang Traditional Chinese Medicines. The first category is anemogenous phlegm, while the first recommended Chinese Medicine is Niuhuang Qinxin Pill in that category.

此后,清宫御药房多次运用同仁堂配方制作成药,如御药房档案《上用丸散膏丹配方薄》记载:“光绪十三年九月十二日,连英传:用同仁堂配方合梅苏丸;光绪十七年三月二十二日,按同仁堂配方合清肺抑火化痰丸四分之一料,如绿豆粒大;光绪二十二年六月初七日,用同仁堂配方合千金保胎膏一料;光绪二十六年二月十一日,福祥传:用同仁堂配方合加味保和丸半料;光绪二十六年二月十一日,福祥传:用同仁堂配方合香砂养胃半料”。
After that, the Qing imperial pharmacy applied Tongrentang formulas to prepare their medicines for several times.

供御药的用途
 Application

1、养生保健治未病
Keeping healthy for preventive treatment of diseases

(1)常年养生治未病
Keeping healthy constantly for preventive treatment of diseases

《黄帝内经》曰:“阴阳四时者,万物之终始也,死生之本也,逆之则灾害生,从之则苛疾不起,是谓得道”。四季养生、防病于未然,不治已病治未病是中医养生、医疗的基本理念,同仁堂供的御药中50%以上用于治未病。在皇宫中,皇帝、后、妃等脾胃病较多,加之易有肝郁气滞,多数停饮较重,湿邪缠身,所以常年使用灯芯草、三仙饮(炒山楂、炒麦芽、炒神曲)等消食、祛湿、清心、安神的中药调理。
Keeping healthy and preventing disease are quite worthwhile all year round. This is the fundamental philosophy of Traditional Chinese Medical Treatment. Half of the Tongrentang supplied medicines for the imperial pharmacy preparation was mainly aimed at such preventions.  

(2)四季调理治未病
Recuperating at all seasons for Preventative treatment of diseases

季节用药运用了中药的性味归经理论调理人体健康,选用平和、有效的药味,依据五行理论(春属木与肝相关、夏属火与心相关、长夏属土与脾相关、秋属金与肺相关、冬属水与肾相关)预防疾病的发生。这是中医养生保健理论和方法在清宫的具体实践,在现代社会仍然有广泛的应用价值。
The seasonal medication applies to the tropism of taste of Traditional Chinese Medicine for recuperation of the human body to prevent disease by using mild and effective Medicinal Materials and following the Five Elements theory. Such theories and practices of keeping healthy with Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Qing Imperial Palace still remain valuable of vast application in the modern society.

春季,天气渐暖,风多干燥,寒热交替,养生去病重在舒肝养血,养阴润燥,健脾开胃利湿。同仁堂供鲜芦根、白菊花、竹茹等宣润肺燥,养阴益肝;用灯芯草、三仙饮(炒山楂、炒麦芽、炒神曲)消食、导滞、养脾胃。
In spring, Tongrentang supplies fresh Rhizoma Phragmitis, white chrysanthemums and Caulis Bambusae In Taenia for nourishing the lung, nourishing Yin(feminine and negative) and strengthening liver. Common rushes and Sanxianyin are helpful for digestion and removing food stagnation, and strengthening the spleen and stomach.

夏季,天地温暖湿润,万物处于开散、繁茂的时期,需要防治温热过度,伤损阴液。同仁堂供暑汤、香薷汤、金衣祛暑丸、六合定中丸、灯芯草、薄荷、竹茹等祛暑解热、生津止渴。
In summer, Tongrentang supplies Herba Elsholtziae Decoction, Caulis Bambusae In Taenia and other products for clearing such heat, helping produce saliva and quench thirst.

秋季,天地气候转向寒冷、干燥,万物处于收敛阶段,北京地区秋风、风沙开始变多,人容易多愁善感,需要注意润肺防燥,止咳化痰。同仁堂供灯芯草、薄荷、白菊花等润肺去燥。
In autumn, Tongrentang provides common rushes, mint and white chrysanthemums for nourishing your lung and expelling pathogenic heat.

冬季,天寒地冻,万物纷纷进入阳气潜藏于内的状态,需要注意保护身体阳气,勿使外越,避免外界寒冷侵袭而损伤。同仁堂供鲜芦根、白豆蔻、砂仁、三仙饮(炒山楂、炒麦芽、炒神曲)等引肺气下降,开胃暖胃。
In winter, Tongrentang supplies fresh Rhizoma Phragmitis, cardamom, fructus amomi and San xian Yin and medicated leaven to down regulate lung Qi(Vital energy) for appetizing and warming the stomach.

(3)对证用药治未病
Indication-based Preventive Medication for Treating Disease Before Its Onset

乾隆四十一年至六十四年,乾隆皇帝因渐至暮年,先后天俱亏,阴阳气血虚损叠至,故频用八珍糕、生脉饮(煎剂),其中乾隆六十二年至六十四年,共进生脉饮359次。
In 1778--1801, the 41st through 64th Qing Qianlong reign, the Qing emperor Qianlong, in the twilight of his life, suffered from post-natural weakness, in addition to deficiencies of Yin(feminine and negative), Yang(masculine and positive), Qi(Vital energy) and Blood, therefore frequently took eight-therapy cakes and Shengmaiyin, of which, during 1799--1801, 359 were Tongrentang consumed by him.

2、随时传药治已病
Around-the-clock Medical Service For Curing of the Diseases

清宫成员发生疾病,特别是皇帝、太后等生病,同仁堂要“全天候”服务。
Upon their sickness, the Qing imperial palace officials and their family, especially the emperor and the empress dowager, demanded Tongrentang’s provision of around-the-clock medical services.

再造丸收载于1764年《同仁堂传统配本》的“风痰门”。经考证,光绪十一年(1885年),御医李德昌为慈禧太后拟再造丸,是根据《同仁堂传统配本》结合慈禧太后本人体质加1味白芍而成。 同仁堂再造丸仿单现存于故宫,仿单内容:“此药专治风湿诸痹、口眼歪斜、半身不遂、行步艰难、筋骨拘挛、手足疼痛。宣畅气血,通利经络。大者一丸、小者酌用。病在左部,用四物汤为引,当归、生地、白芍、川芎各一钱;病在右部,用四君子汤为引,白术一钱、茯苓一钱、人参一钱、甘草五分,如无人参用黄芪代;其余用姜汤、黄酒酌用;孕妇忌服;五种痫症,用金器煎汤送下。同仁堂乐家老铺开设在北京正阳门外大栅栏中间路南,有冲天招牌便是”。
The Zaizao Pill is compiled into the Anemogenous Phlegm category of TRT Traditional Medicine Matching Tongrentang in the 11rd Guangxu reign (1885), through investigations, it is evidenced that, the imperial physician Li Dechang proposed the Zaizao Pill to Empress Dowager Cixi with reference to TRT Traditional Medicine Matching, and just added one more herbal medicine -Radix Paeoniae Alba based on Cixi’s actual physical conditions. The Tongrentang imitated Zaizao Pill recipe from Tongrentang is now enshrined at the Palace Museum,

3、随王伴驾保平安
Ensuring the emperor’s health during his travels

同仁堂供的御药经常为皇上及皇室成员的出行保驾护航。
During the travel of the emperor and other imperial family members, Tongrentang medicines specially formulated for use by the ancient China's emperor were often brought with them.

乾隆四十八年(1783年)乾隆帝“木兰秋狝”(秋猎),备“随围药味咀片丸散”的差事由同仁堂承担,并“限八月三十一日送到”。此次所办药材有茯苓、苏叶、陈皮、半夏等27种;六味地黄丸、健步虎潜丸、补中益气丸、藿香正气丸、宣化丸、参苏理肺丸、五福化毒丹等成药34种;牛黄、冰片、麝香、朱砂、雄黄、犀角面、白芨面等珍贵细料药物及药面7种。
During Qianlong’s ‘Mulan Qiuxian’ (autumn hunting) in his 48th reign(1783), the preparation of herbal medicines, slices, patent medicines used in the hunting was undertaken by Tongrentang, which was ordered ‘to be due on 31st day of the 8th lunar month’. There were 27 kinds of medicinal materials, 34 patent medicines  And 7 kinds of precious and fine materials and powders.

4、赏赐大臣显皇恩
Rewarding the Minister to show emperor's kindness

皇帝不仅注重自身的养生,也对为其立下功劳的大臣或封疆大吏、近臣宠臣、皇亲国戚、前线官兵等十分关爱。这种关爱也在其赏赐药品上见到一斑。
The emperor not only paid attention to his own health, but also cared for the ministers or regional premiers who had made contributions, courtiers and preferred ministers, imperial relatives, and the frontline officers and soldiers.

平安丸为治日常心胃疼痛的方剂,胸膈胀满,呕吐嘈杂,纳呆痞塞者均宜,其可理肝脾,顺升降,不损元气,故不仅皇室人员使用,雍正帝也大量赏赐臣下。雍正六年十二月初八日(1728年),雍正帝亲批:赏总督、御史、巡抚、将军、提督、总兵、都统等各级将领平安丸,“共用平安丸捌万伍千柒佰丸”。
Pingan Pill is a prescription for treating pains in the heart and stomach. This prescription is suitable for those who feel fullness in chest, vomit, have sour regurgitation, and feel anorexia, distention and stagnation. It can regulate the liver and spleen, and coordinate the up and down movement without damaging the promordial Qi(Vital energy). Therefore, it was used not only by imperial families, but also by ministers as rewards given by Emperor Yongzheng.

5、保障会试聚人才
Ensuring that examinations would gather talents

清朝每年春秋二次(同治五年以前每年四次)举办太医院科会考试,由堂官主考,凡吏目、医士、恩粮生、肆业生、医生,按考试结果决定是否能在太医院供职。此时同仁堂承担“科会试场差”,参考人员身体不适所用中药由同仁堂供应。
In the Qing Dynasty, imperial medical examinations were held two times, separately in spring and autumn , by the Imperial Hospital. The examinations were monitored by Court officials and the examination results of the participants, including minor officials, medical assistants, food doctors, interns, physicians, were used to determine whether they could work in the Imperial Hospital or not. At this time, Tongrentang was responsible for the "examination room errands", and supplied Chinese medicines to these who had discomfort during the test.

在清朝每三年的科举会试中,同仁堂根据举人的身体情况免费备药,写上举人的名字送到驻地。
In imperial medical examinations that took place every 3 years in Qing Dynasty, Tongrentang prepared medicines according to the physical conditions of the successful candidates of the examinations with their name on the prescriptions and then delivered these prescriptions to where they lived.

上述同仁堂提供的药品保障服务,既为皇家赢得了士子之心,也使同仁堂的产品名扬四海。
These drug-supporting services provided by Tongrentang had not only won the hearts of the scholars for the imperial family, but also made the products of Tongrentang well-known in the world.

6、防控疫情稳民心
Prevention and Control of the Epidemic to Stabilize the Public Confidence

清太医张仲元《太医院志》载:“奉旨于瘟疫时于京城设厂派员诊治施药……奏派差务:国初以来,每直京师多疫,由步军统领奏请恩施医药惠济满汉军民人等,得旨后由本院开单奏派……奉旨以为常例”。
Dr. Zhang Zhongyuan, a court physician of the Qing Dynasty, said in the Annals of Imperial Academy of Medicine: “At the order of the emperor, medical stations would be established and medical staff be dispatched to distribute medicines in the capital city whenever there was an epidemic outburst...the imperial decree stated: ever since the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, whenever an epidemic erupted in the capital city, the infantry commander would petition for an imperial decree to distribute medicines to soldiers and civilians from both Manchu and Han community. Once the Emperor issued an imperial decree, the Imperial Academy of Medicine would make a “list of medicines” and start the distribution accordingly...it was mandatory to follow the imperial decree.”

供御药的主要形式
Main Delivery Forms of Imperial Medicines 

票传交进
List-based Delivery

清宫御药房将各宫内药房等处所传用的成药或咀片写出“用药清单”,交给每日来御药房的同仁堂药商,药商将“用药清单”速交同仁堂铺东,同仁堂据此逐一备药,再由药商将药送交御药房。
The Imperial Pharmacy of Qing Imperial Palace would make a "list of medicines" for patent medicines needed by the internal Pharmacies in every palace, and give it to the shopkeeper of Tongrentang immediately, who would prepare the medicines one by one according to the list.

赶紧交进
Prompt Delivery

遇到皇帝对于用药有特殊质量要求的情况,御药房须派官员去同仁堂遴选药材,“赶紧交进”。
In the case that the Emperor had special requirements for the quality of medicines, the Imperial Pharmacy would send officials to Tongrentang to select the Medicinal Materials and "deliver them promptly".

进宫制药
On-site Medicine Preparation in the Palace

御药房传同仁堂技术人员进宫制药。光绪二十五年正月十四日乾清宫传神效暖脐药二料,档案记载在御药房制药,用“同仁堂熬膏匠役四名”。同仁堂的“工匠”能够进宫制药,体现出皇家对同仁堂制药工艺水平的信任。
Pharmacists of Tongrentang were called upon by the Imperial Pharmacy to prepare medicines in the palace.

监视制药
Monitoring of Medicine Preparation

御药房派官员到同仁堂监视制药,所用药料从同仁堂取货。光绪三十一年正月初三日,御药房“合配三色暑药共一百四十料,官员、苏拉等赴同仁堂监视碾、筛以及合配妥协”。
Some officials dispatched by the Imperial Pharmacy monitored the process of medicine preparation in Tongrentang, with all the Medicinal Materials being selected there in Tongrentang.

紧急传药
Emergency Delivery of Medicines

这种形式是因为宫内有特殊病人,主要是皇帝、太后等突发疾病,由乾清宫内药房、寿药房等首领传旨御药房,所用药物在同仁堂准备就绪,随时交进。即使在夜间,御药房也要派专差立即到同仁堂取药。
This happened when some patients in the palace needed special treatment, mostly when the Emperor and the Empress Dowager suddenly fell ill. In this case, the Imperial Pharmacy would receive imperial decree through the supervisors of the Internal Pharmacy and the Longevity Pharmacy of Palace of Heavenly Purity, then all medicines needed would be well-prepared in Tongrentang for prompt delivery. Even at night, the Imperial Pharmacy must send special dispatchers to Tongrentang to collect the medicines.

供御药的基本程序
Basic Procedures for the Delivery of Imperial Medicines

清御药房档案记载,同仁堂向清宫供药大致需要按以下程序办理:
Tongrentang’s process of offering medicines to the Qing Imperial Palace were as follows:

内药房首领、太监传旨,向御药房传药。
The supervisor and eunuch of the Internal Pharmacy would convey the imperial decree to the Imperial Pharmacy for the delivery of medicines.

御药房“票传”同仁堂,由同仁堂药商每日到御药房领“用药清单传票”,送交同仁堂药铺。
Summoned by the Imperial Pharmacy, the drug dealer of Tongrentang would come and collect the “list of medicines” on a daily basis, and then deliver the list to Tongrentang.

同仁堂立即按“用药清单”备药,由同仁堂药商送交御药房。
Tongrentang would prepare the medicines immediately according to the “list of medicines” and deliver them to the Imperial Pharmacy through the drug dealer.

御药房官员检查药味质量、按“票传”过秤验收,并严格规定:“药商送交本药房验明、过秤其药味,必须拣选上好咀片……方可交进”;验收合格即可收药;验收不合格,御药房值班库掌等官员立刻“斥驳”不能擅收。
The medicines should be checked for the quality and weighed according to the “list of medicines” by the officials of the Imperial Pharmacy for acceptance.

御药房将药味送交内药房,请皇上看后进行加工制作,即“内药房恭呈御览,验毕交下合配”。
The Imperial Pharmacy would deliver the medicines to the Internal Pharmacy, and the preparation process would start after the emperor gave his permission, namely “the Internal Pharmacy would present the medicines to the emperor for determining whether the preparation process should start”.

御药房(或内药房)合配丸散或调剂汤剂,并限定:“医生、苏拉等一切炮制碾筛成做不准草率,以昭慎重”。
The Imperial Pharmacy (or the Internal Pharmacy) would prepare the pills, powder or decoction.

制作完成后有些档案记载呈送太后、皇帝御览。
Once the preparation completed, some of the records would be present to the Empress Dowager and the Emperor for review.

御药房根据崇文门的药味定价核算御药的药银数,制作“传药价值清单”。
The Imperial Pharmacy would calculate the final price of imperial medicines and make a “price list of medicines”.

内务府和御药房主管官员共17人签字。签字官员有掌稿笔贴式、主事、员外郎、主稿员外郎、员外郎督催差务兼行内管领、库掌、署理事务主稿员外郎、总管大库事务主稿郎中、主稿郎中,最后由御药房事务协办大学士、户部尚书、总管内务府大臣宗室福签字。
The list would be signed by a total of 17 competent officials from the Imperial Household Department and the Imperial Pharmacy.

御药房将上述程序工作撰写呈文题为“御药房为呈明领取药银事”呈报皇帝御批。
The Imperial Pharmacy would compile a memorial of the above mentioned process with the title of “Medicinal Expenses Sorted Out by the Imperial Pharmacy”, and submit it to the Emperor for review.

御药房将“御药房为呈明领取药银事”呈文,移送广储司转银库。
The Imperial Pharmacy then would make the memorial--“Medicine Expenses Sorted Out by the Imperial Pharmacy” into an official document and transfer it to the Treasury Bureau via the Department of Storage.

御药房“出具印领”(有公章的证明)赴银库领银。
The Imperial Pharmacy would issue “a certificate bearing an official seal” and collect fees of the medicines from the Treasury Bureau.

御药房向景运门发公文“御药房为承报出门事”报告。
The Imperial Pharmacy would issue an official document titled “Settlement Submitted by the Imperial Pharmacy” to Jingyun Gate.

御药房给御史衙门发公文“御药房为知会事”。
Then, the Imperial Pharmacy would an official document titled “Notification from the Imperial Pharmacy” to the Discipline Inspection Department.

同仁堂药商将药银领回同仁堂。
Later, the drug dealer of Tongrentang would collect the total sum of medicine fees.

供御药的质量要求
Quality Requirements for Imperial Medicines

1、对药材质量的要求是上等、纯洁、地道。比如黄连选用上等、粗大、饱满,去掉须根的四川雅安的鸡爪黄莲。
The Medicinal Materials should be superior in quality, impurity-free and authentic. For example, Rhizoma coptidis should be chicken feet-shaped ones from Ya’an, Sichuan Province, which must be superior in quality, bulky and plump with fibrous roots being removed.

2、对制药的要求是“一切炮制、碾筛、成做,不得草率,以昭慎重”。同仁堂制药工艺精湛,对炮制要求十分严苛且方法独特,据统计,同仁堂传统炮制加工方法达50多种,较复杂的工序达20多道。
The requirements for medicine preparation stated that "all procedures related to processing, grinding, screening of medicines should be rigorous and earnest, as a sign to demonstrate the seriousness of the whole process".

3、明确了御药各相关方的质量责任。
Clarification of the quality-related responsibilities of all parties involved in the delivery of imperial medicines.

一是同仁堂药商、铺东对供御药的质量负责;
1) The drug dealer and shopkeeper of Tongrentang should be responsible for the quality of imperial medicines;

二是御药房“掌库(库房首领)检查验收,对送交药味验收负责;
2) The warehouse supervisor of the Imperial Pharmacy should be in charge of checking and acceptance of the medicines and be responsible for the medicines delivered;

三是皇帝、太后亲自点验;
3) The Emperor and the Empress Dowager would count and check the medicines themselves;

四是在使用或制作过程中经手的御药房官员17-18人都要签字负责形成“粘单(类似于管理记录)”最后由内务府总管大臣签字;
4) Acting as a form of responsibility sharing, an “allonge” (similar to management records) should be signed by 17 to 18 officials of the Imperial Pharmacy who engaged in medicine administration and preparation, which followed by the final signature of the Chief Minister of Imperial Household Department;

五是供药有差错交内务府主管刑事狱案的慎行司法办。
5) Any errors arising from the delivery of medicines should be dealt with by the Imperial Discipline Department, a division coping with criminal cases under the Imperial Household Department.

友情链接:顶级娱乐城